A Common Framework for Teaching and Learning in Mapleton
Using common frameworks assures a more coherent and intentional approach to teaching, learning and curriculum implementation. Mapleton subscribes to the use of a broad but common framework for classroom instructional design and planning that provides a common instructional language and vocabulary, which leads to the consistent use of research-based instructional strategies at each school.
‘We need excellent diagnosis identifying strengths and opportunities to improve, then focus on understanding what has led us to the situation and being clear on where we therefore need to go. We need gentle pressure, relentlessly pursued toward transparent and defensible targets, esteeming the expertise of educators who make these differences, while building a profession based on this expertise…an education implementation model that is shared between schools and not resident in only a few.’ (Hattie, 2017)
Common Framework for understanding the Teaching and Learning Cycle
Standards: What do students need to know, understand and be able to do?
Pre-assessment: How will we know what students already know?
The cycle begins with the teacher taking an assessment sample, which for reading or writing is likely to be a running record, a writing sample, or notes from the teacher’s monitoring notebook. The teacher evaluates the samples, looking for the strengths of the learner and what the learner needs to know next. The evaluation is formative, done for the purpose of identifying the teaching that is needed to help each learner move forward
Curriculum materials and Instruction: What are the most effective teaching strategies to ensure student learn?
Formative Assessment: Did students learn what they need to know?
Instruction and Intervention: What do we do when students don’t learn or reach mastery?
Summative Assessment: How do we know well students have learned?
Common Framework for The Professional Teaching and Learning Cycle:
Published in SEDL Letter Volume XIX, Number 1, April 2007, Developing a Staff of Learners
Prior to beginning the cycle, a team of teachers examines student achievement data from state achievement tests or local benchmark tests aligned to the state standards and selects standards on which to focus.
Phase I: Study
Teachers work in collaborative planning teams (grade-level, vertical, or departmental) to critically examine and discuss the learning expectations from the selected state standards. Teachers working collaboratively develop a common understanding of the following:
- The concepts and skills students need to meet the expectations in the standards
- How the standards for a grade or course are assessed on state and local tests
- How the standards fit within scope and sequence of the district curriculum
Phase II: Select
Collaborative planning teams research and select instructional strategies and resources for enhancing learning as described in the standards. Working collaboratively, teachers
- identify effective research-based strategies and appropriate resources that will be used to support learning that is aligned to the standards; and
- agree on appropriate assessment techniques that will be used to provide evidence of student learning.
Phase III: Plan
Collaborative planning teams work together to formally plan a lesson incorporating the selected strategies and agree on the type of student work each teacher will take into the Analyze phase of the PTLC to reveal evidence of student learning. Working collaboratively, teachers
- develop a common formal plan outlining the lesson objectives (relevant to the standards), the materials to be used, the procedures, the time frame for the lesson, and the activities in which students will be engaged; and
- decide what evidence of student learning will be collected during the implementation.
Phase IV: Implement
Teachers teach the planned lesson, make note of implementation successes and challenges, and gather the agreed-upon evidence of student learning. Working collaboratively, teachers
- deliver the lesson as planned in the specified time period;
- record results, noting where students struggled and where instruction did not achieve expected outcomes; and
- collect the agreed-upon evidence of student learning to take back to the collaborative planning team.
Phase V: Analyze
Teachers gather again in collaborative teams to examine student work and discuss student understanding of the standards. Working collaboratively, teachers
- revisit and familiarize themselves with the standards before analyzing student work;
- analyze a sampling of student work for evidence of student learning;
- discuss whether students have met the expectations outlined in the standards and make inferences about the strengths, weaknesses, and implications of instruction; and
- identify what students know and what skills need to be strengthened in future lessons.
Phase VI: Adjust
Collaborative teams reflect on the results of analyzing student work. Teachers discuss alternative instructional strategies or modifications to the original instructional strategy that may be better suited to promoting student learning. Working collaboratively, teachers
- reflect on their common and disparate teaching experiences;
- consider and identify alternative instructional strategies for future instruction;
- refine and improve the lesson; and
- determine when the instructional modifications will take place, what can be built into subsequent lessons, and what needs an additional targeted lesson.